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Bharatiya Janata Party
BJP-flag.svg
Leader Rajnath Singh
Founded 1980
Main Office 11, Ashoka Road, New Delhi - 110001
Alliance National Democratic Alliance
Ideology Hindutva, Indian nationalism and Integral humanism
Publications {{{publication}}}
Website http://bjp.org
See also Politics of India

Political parties in India
Elections in India

The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (lang-hi भारतीय जनता पार्टी [भाजपा]), Indian People's Party, created in 1980, is one of the two major national political parties in India. It projects itself as a champion of the socio-religious cultural values of the country's Hindu majority, conservative social policies, and strong national defense. Its constituency is strengthened by the broad umbrella of Hindu nationalist organizations, informally known as the Sangh Parivar (League of Indian nationalist organizations), in which the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh plays a leading role.

Since its inception, the BJP has been a prime opponent of the Indian National Congress. It has allied with regional parties to roll back the left-of-centre tendencies formerly endorsed by the Congress Party, which dominated Indian politics for four decades. The ideological rallying cry of the BJP is Hindutva, literally "Hinduness," or cultural Hindu nationalism.

The BJP, in alliance with several other parties, led the Government of India between 1998 and 2004, under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Deputy Prime Minister Lal Krishna Advani, its most senior leaders. It is the leading party within the National Democratic Alliance and leads the opposition.

History

Part of a series on
Hindu politics

Major parties

Bharatiya Janata Party
Shiv Sena

Defunct parties

Hindu Mahasabha
Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Ram Rajya Parishad

Ideas

Integral humanism
Hindu nationalism
Hindutva
Uniform civil code

Major figures

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar
Syama Prasad Mookerjee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Lal Krishna Advani
Bal Thackeray
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya

Related authors

Vishal Agarwal
B.C. Chattopadhyay
Koenraad Elst
Francois Gautier
Sita Ram Goel
K.S. Lal
Harsh Narain
Yvette Rosser
Arun Shourie
Ram Swarup

 v  d  e 

Origins

The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS, Indian People's Union) was founded in 1952 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee, a Bengali nationalist leader, former Union Minister and freedom-fighter. It was considered the political wing of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. But the fortunes of the young party floundered in 1953, when Mookherjee died in Kashmir in jail during a protest. The BJS lasted for 24 more years, but never succeeded in winning control of any state or more than a small share of the seats of the Union Parliament. It was unable to challenge the Indian National Congress, the leading organization in the nation's freedom movement, for a political majority, and always had to contend with lesser socialist parties for second and third places. However, the party nourished future leaders who were seasoned with tough political experiences, like the future Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

When Indira Gandhi imposed a state of emergency in 1975, postponing elections and misusing major central powers granted to her by the Constitution, the BJS joined a coalition of parties in active protest. Several of its leaders were arrested, including Vajpayee. But when Gandhi called elections in 1977, the BJS invested all its political and organizational capital in merging into the new Janata Party, a unified opposition party. A mixture of socialists, regionalists, and former Congressmen, the party was united in opposition to the Emergency and Indira Gandhi. The Janata Party defeated Indira Gandhi's Congress Party in a landslide victory and formed a government under Morarji Desai's leadership. Vajpayee, the most senior BJS leader, became Minister for External Affairs. His close friend and political comrade Lal Krishna Advani became the Minister for Information and Broadcasting.

The Janata Party government lasted for barely two years, and following its collapse, Indira Gandhi's Congress returned in a thunderous landslide victory. When the Janata Party imploded, the nucleus of the BJS reorganised themselves.

Early years

The BJP was founded in December 1980, under the direct leadership of the duovirate of Vajpayee and Advani. In the 1984 Lok Sabha elections, in which the Congress Party won a massive landslide victory following Indira Gandhi's assassination, the BJP obtained only 2 seats out of 543. But in the 1989 Lok Sabha elections, the BJP won 88 seats. It supported the Janata Dal-led coalition of V.P. Singh. On October 23, 1990, BJP leader L.K. Advani was arrested by the Chief Minister of Bihar, Laloo Prasad Yadav, due to his agitation for the construction of the Ram Janmabhoomi temple in Ayodhya. The BJP withdrew its support of this government, and it collapsed the next month.

In the 1991 Lok Sabha elections, the BJP became the premier opposition party, and the Congress government functioned as a minority. During this time, the Janata Dal, the other major offshoot of the Janata Party, saw itself crumble into regional factions, and many leaders opted for the BJP.

The First BJP Government (May 16 - 31st, 1996)

In 1996, the BJP became the single-largest political party in the parliament, with the Congress at its lowest tally ever. The President of India, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, appointed Vajpayee as Prime Minister and the BJP worked to foster a coalition that could command a majority in the Lok Sabha. [1] However the opponents of BJP were able to rally a majority and Vajpayee had to resign after only 13 days in power, allowing a broad centre-left coalition government to be formed instead, known as the United Front.

The Second BJP Government (March 19, 1998 - October 13, 1999)

Lok Sabha elections were again held in 1998, and the BJP again won the largest number of seats. This time, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with allied political parties. Besides its old allies, the Samata Party, the Shiromani Akali Dal and Shiv Sena, the BJP made friends in the Telugu Desam Party, the AIADMK, and the Biju Janata Dal. The NDA had a slim majority, and Vajpayee returned as Prime Minister. [2] But the coalition ruptured in May 1999 when the leader of AIADMK, Jayalalitha, withdrew her support, and fresh elections were again called. The BJP-led government lost its majority by only one vote when it was taken.

The government provided significant support to the Prasar Bharati Act which gave government owned media channels more autonomy. The Act had been passed by the National Front government with BJP support, but had been languishing relatively unimplemented ever since.

The new Government carried out an electoral promise with the 5 nuclear tests at Pokhran, in Rajasthan in 1998, making India an unofficial nuclear power. [3]

The Vajpayee administration also oversaw the country's defenses during the Kargil War, where the Indian military performed assaults and operations to recover strategic mountain posts from Pakistani soldiers who had occupied ground on the Indian side of the Line of Control.

The Third BJP Government (October 13, 1999 - May 13, 2004)

On October 13, 1999, the BJP-led NDA won as many as 303 seats. The BJP won an all-time high of 183. Vajpayee won his third term as Prime Minister, and Advani became the Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister. This NDA Government lasted for its full five years.

The BJP-led National Democratic Alliance passed the Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act in 2002, a law increasing the powers of police authorities and intelligence agencies in an effort to curb subversive political activities and terrorism. The POTA was promulgated chiefly in response to the December 13 2001 terrorist attacks on the Union Parliament. [4]

Vajpayee and his economic team, led by Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha, pushed through major privatizations of big government corporations, the liberalization of trade under World Trade Organization rules, opening the skies to commercial airlines, foreign investment and ownership and developed "Special Economic Zones" where industries could enjoy special infrastructure. The government especially catered to the rising information technology industry, and lowered taxes for middle-class Indians and businesses. Record increases in agricultural and industrial production were matched by hungry middle-class consumers, and increasing foreign trade and investment. In 2004, the Government signed the South Asia Free Trade Agreement with Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives, a decision intended to vastly benefit over 1.6 billion people.

Vajpayee took a personal interest in the Golden Quadrilateral project, a road system which aimed at linking the four corners of the nation with heavy, industrial roads. His education programs boosted the enrollment of children into primary schools, expanded aid for schools and pushed new-age technologies to improve schooling.[1]

Vajpayee was single-handedly responsible for three monumental efforts to build peaceful relations with Pakistan. In 1999, he rode on the inaugural Delhi-Lahore bus, and signed the Lahore Declaration with the Pakistani Prime Minister, committing India to peace. Despite the betrayal to come three months later in Kargil, Vajpayee in 2001 invited Pakistan's military ruler, Pervez Musharraf, to Delhi, though the summit failed with no result. And despite the terrorist attacks that froze relations for two and a half years, Vajpayee, in a stunning and emotive speech to Parliament in August 2004, spoke of his "absolute last attempt of my life" to foster peace with Pakistan, de-freezing relations and invoking praise from world leaders.

The 2000 Tehelka scam severely affected the credibility of the NDA Government and saw the Congress and its allies boycotting Parliament. As a result, the then BJP President, Bangaru Laxman, and the Defense Minister, George Fernandes, were forced to resign.

After the 2004 General Election

The BJP and the NDA suffered a shock defeat in the general elections in 2004, and failed to muster a parliamentary majority. A.B. Vajpayee passed on the prime ministership to Dr. Manmohan Singh of the Congress Party, and its United Progressive Alliance.

After the defeat was clear, several prominent BJP members including Sushma Swaraj and L.K. Advani, protested that Sonia Gandhi should not be permitted to hold the Prime Minister's office because of her Italian birth and other factors such as her lack of fluency in any Indian language, and her failure to take Indian citizenship for almost 15 years after her wedding to Rajiv Gandhi in spite of her claims to have "become an Indian in her heart the day she became Indira Gandhi's daughter-in-law". [5]

The defeat was incomprehensible to most pollsters and political analysts, who assumed that the BJP would win on the basis of Vajpayee's widespread popularity, the national economic boom and the revival of the peace process with Pakistan. Following the defeat, there was a perception amongst parts of the party cadre that the party had expected victory to come easy and thus volunteers of the organisation had not worked hard enough to canvass voters and recruit supporters, and that the political campaign of BJP had remained confined to television, radio and SMS (mobile phones). There was also a belief that socio-religious organizations close to the BJP (the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Vishwa Hindu Parishad), offered little assistance in these elections, due to the BJP government's non-pursuit of the Ayodhya temple issue, uniform civil code, and other ideological staples, and the attitude of many BJP leaders that the BJP did not require their aid to be successful. Independent analysts saw the defeat arising from a backlash by large classes of people who had not benefitted from the economic growth as well as a failure by the party to secure strong allies. The BJP slogan of "India Shining" and the "Feel Good Factor" boomeranged. The most plausible theory is that India's elections are still on the basis of local factors. The BJP did incredibly well in states where it had recently won or where there was anti-incumbency (I.E. Madhya Pradesh, Punjab), but was badly beaten in states where it tied up with unpopular ruling parties (I.E. the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu and TDP in Andhra Pradesh). Caste combinations were another factor in its loss.

Bjpdurgapur

BJP election poster 2004 in Bengali.

Key Events: August 2004: Following the BJP's loss at the Centre, most of its government in Arunachal Pradesh joins the Congress en masse. Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Uma Bharati resigns as she is charged in a dated case related to hoisting the Indian tricolour in a minority area.
October 2004: The BJP and its alliance partner, Shiv Sena, fail in their bid to take back power in Maharashtra. In the wake of the defeat, party President Venkaiah Naidu quits, paving the way for Lal Krishna Advani to take up the post.
February 2005: Manohar Parrikar-led BJP government in Goa loses majority due to defections, forcing President's Rule. In state elections, the BJP-JD(U) combine emerges as the largest bloc in Bihar, but short of a majority, leading to months of political brinksmanship. In Jharkhand, the BJP is the largest party.
March 2005: Congress is berated by media for using manipulative tactics to install a friendly government in Jharkhand. Following that government's quick collapse, Chief Minister Arjun Munda is able to regain his post.
June 2005: Advani's presidency was questioned by some after he made comments praising founding-father of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah as a "secular" leader. On a visit to Pakistan to transform his image from a hardliner to a peacenik in the Vajpayee mold, Advani invited a storm of criticism from the Hindu nationalist base of the party, and for several weeks lost control amidst fiery calls for his resignation. His resignation was given and retracted, and a public clarification of his comments announced. [6]
November 2005: An alliance of the Janata Dal-United and BJP wins a plurality in the Indian state of Bihar, allowing its first administration in that state. Uma Bharati, a former Chief Minister, leaves the party for the second time, announcing her own political outfit. This follows a decision by central BJP leaders to make Shivraj Singh Chauhan the Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh
January 2006: As expected, Lal Krishna Advani finally resigns and a consensus candidate, Rajnath Singh, is handed the party's presidency. The BJP forms a coalition government with the Janata Dal-Secular in Karnataka, forming its first administration in South India.
March 2006: Madan Lal Khurana, a former Chief Minister and Governor, is expelled for anti-party remarks.
May 2006: Pramod Mahajan, a former Union Minister and key strategist of the party, is killed by his brother in a major tragedy for the party. Babulal Marandi, a former Union Minister and Chief Minister, resigns from the BJP and floats his own political outfit.
June 2006: Assembly Elections are held in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Assam and Pondicherry. BJP can only win a dozen-odd seats in Assam and draws a blank in the others.
September 2006: Independents backing the BJP-led government in Jharkhand force its collapse.
November 2006: Rajnath Singh is formally elected as President, unopposed.
December 2006: Navjot Singh Sidhu, BJP MP from Amritsar, resigns after he is convicted of manslaughter. The charges related to an incident in 1988 when he dragged an elderly man out of his car and showered him with blows after a road accident.
February 2007: BJP and its ally, Shiv Sena, retain control over the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation, the nation's richest civic body. In Assembly elections, the BJP regains power in Uttarakhand and Punjab, in alliance with the Shiromani Akali Dal.

Ideology

The BJP is a religious conservative political organisation. It sees itself as rising to the defence of indigenous culture, and Indian religious systems which include Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism. To many Hindu nationalists, Bharat is a Hindu Rashtra, literally a Hindu nation.

According to BJP, this definition does not exclude Muslims, Christians. Hindu Rashtra is portrayed as cultural nationalism and Hinduism as the entire complex system of culture, history, faith and worship that have evolved in India over the past 5,000 years. In the political language of Hindu nationalists, all the peoples of India, their cultures and heritage are "Hindu," which literally means "inhabitant of the land of the river Sindhu," the modern-day Indus.

While the draft manifestation of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (The organization that spawned the BJP) mentions the "Hindu Rashtra", the BJP has historically raised objections to this view. The party's chief objective is the "building up of India as a modern, progressive and enlightened nation" which draws inspiration from India's ancient Hindu culture and values. The key theorist of the party, K. Upadhyaya, authored the publication titled Integral humanism which laid down the foundations for this view. According to Upadhyaya, the so-called "monarch" and "state" are the dharma and the chiti (genius) of society. He asserted that the very source of meaning in Indian society is the concept of "national identity". The BJP stresses the importance of integrating the four ends of human life in accordance with Hindu scripture i.e., kama (gratification),artha (wealth), dharma (faith), and moksha (spiritual release).[2]

The BJP has been accused of being a xenophobic and fascist organization by its opponents. Its supporters, on the other hand, argue that it is no more than a conservative, nationally-oriented party which does not wish to polarise the country on communal (religious) grounds. These accusations are largely regarded as a smear campaign against the BJP by left-wing pundits. In addition, accusations of "fascism" in BJP the Hindutva movement coming from the left wing parties and western academics such as Christoffe Jaffrelot have been criticized by former professor of political philosophy[3] and Times of India commentator Jyotirmaya Sharma as a "simplistic transference [that] has done great injustice to our knowledge of Hindu nationalist politics".[4]

The life and work of the BJP is seen by many as strongly influenced by the Partition of India in 1947. The partition was traumatic legacy for most religious communities in India. Millions migrated to find safety in one of the two new states. During the chaos surrounding partition over half a million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, were killed in communal riots wake of horrendous carnage. The trauma of midnight evacuations of ancestral homes, and being forced to wade through murderous violence, chaos and confusion to despair and helplessness in a different land which became their home, has struck deep in the veins of Hindu nationalists.

Another important factor in the ideological construction of the ideology of BJP is the ongoing territorial dispute over Jammu and Kashmir and the wars of 1947-48, 1962, 1965, and 1971 and recently the 1999 Kargil War. The BJP and its supporters feel India must remain vigilant against threats from Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, and elsewhere such as Bangladesh even Sri Lanka.

The BJP has often been accused of participation in religious violence and using religiously sensitive issues for political advantage. These accusations, largely a political smear campaign by opposition parties, have tarnished the image of BJP in the eyes of many Indians, particularly Muslims. Many left wing journalists and observers feel that the BJP is a fascist organization with a clear anti-Muslim bias. This is in spite of the fact that the party has promoted a number of Muslims like Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, the late Sikandar Bakht and Dr. Najma Heptulla into prominent leadership position, and even had a prominent member of the Indian Jewish community, J.F.R. Jacob, among their ranks.

BJP has certain demands and actions that are explicitly controversial, and give rise to charges of fomenting communal tensions. The Ram Janmabhoomi in Ayodhya is probably the most important of such issues. Claims are made that Muslim invaders destroyed an ancient temple in the city of Ayodhya in medieval times, building Babri Mosque on its site.

The Vishwa Hindu Parishad in the 1970s, inaugurated an organized campaign to re-build the Hindu temple there, because the site is considered the birthplace of the Ramayana's hero, Lord Rama, one of the most popular incarnations of Lord Vishnu.

For two decades, the protests were peaceful. But in the late 1980s, the issue turned more controversial than ever. The VHP began to demand a direct demolition of the mosque, and the BJP embraced the issue as its own.

The Ram temple having become a major demand of the BJP, its activists joined the ranks of protestors, and many major party rallies were held in Ayodhya. The emotional power of this issue was a primary factor in the BJP winning the 1991 state assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India, and shot the party to national prominence.

However on December 6 1992, emotional manipulation turned to violence as a parade of protestors burst upon the mosque and tore it down with pickaxes and shovels. The resulting country-wide outburst of anger, murder, looting and burning resulted in over 1,000 deaths. In the aftermath of the communal violence many sectors felt that the secular fabric of India was threatened. The VHP was banned and Advani and other leaders of the BJP were arrested. Advani and Murli Manohar Joshi are two BJP leaders on a CBI chargesheet for the destruction. Despite the arrests, the political power of BJP continued to grow rapidly.

Organisation

The BJP is one of the few parties in India to have a popular-based governing structure, where workers and leaders at the local level have a great say in much of the decision-making. This has also been blamed for public spats between different factions of the party.

The topmost leader in the party is supposed to be the party President. Officially, the BJP constitution provides for a three-year term for the President. Recently, both Venkiah Naidu and LK Advani resigned ahead of schedule due to circumstances. Rajnath Singh has held this post since January 2006. Elections will be held on November 26, 2006, in which it is widely perceived Mr. Singh will have no opposition to officiate his term. Beyond this, there are several Vice-Presidents, General-Secretaries, Treasurers and Secretaries. The National Executive consists of an undetermined number of senior party leaders from across the nation who are the highest decision-making body in the party. At the state level, a similar structure is in place, with every state unit being led by the respective President, who also officially serves a three-year term.

The rank-and-file leadership of BJP largely derives from the cadre of the Rashtriya Sayamsevak Sangh (RSS), which has millions of affiliates. It also maintains close links to other Sangh Parivar organisations, such as Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Swadeshi Jagran Manch (an organisation promoting consumption of domestic goods over foreign imports).

Mass organisations associated with the BJP include:

Outside of India, BJP followers have formed the 'Overseas Friends of BJP'.

Objectives and policies

As per the party's constitution the objectives of the party is explained as "the party is pledged to build up India as a strong and prosperous nation, which is modern, progressive and enlightened in outlook and which proudly draws inspiration from India's ancient culture and values and thus is able to emerge as a great world power playing an effective role in the comity of Nations for the establishment of world peace and a just international order.

The Party aims at establishing a democratic state which guarantees to all citizens irrespective of caste, creed or sex, political, social and economic justice, equality of opportunity and liberty of faith and expression.

The Party shall bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India."

The core agenda of BJP is inspired chiefly by Hindu nationalism. Though not in order of importance, the chief goals of BJP may be summarized as follows:

(1)The Repeal of Article 370 of the Constitution, which grants a special status to Muslim-majority state of Jammu and Kashmir and prevents non-Kashmiris from owning property in the state, in an effort to protect its Muslim-majority.

(2)The Promulgation of a Uniform Common Civil Code, which create only one personal and civil law code for Hindus, Muslims and Christians, who enjoy the privilege of having law codes tailored to their religious culture over personal and family matters. In the minds of BJP supporters, this system creates a sense of division in the country between religious communities.

(3)A Ban on Cow Slaughter, to honor the Hindu tradition of deeming cows and most cattle as sacred, and prohibiting the consumption of beef and pork.

(4)The Ban on Religious Conversions. The BJP argues that it has become virtually impossible to distinguish 'forcible' incidents of conversion from personal choice.

(5)The Construction of the Ram Janmabhoomi temple in Ayodhya.

(6)To achieve the full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India. Presently over 40% of the territory is under the control of Pakistan and China.

The BJP stands for strong national defense, small government and free-market economic policies, but Hindutva has been its core philosophy and identity ever since its inception. The BJP stand on economic policies saw a sudden volte face in the mid nineties from a support of swadeshi products to the embracing of free market ideas.

Office Bearers

President

Former Presidents

Leader of the Opposition, Lok Sabha

lal krishna adwani

Leader of the Opposition, Rajya Sabha

Vice-Presidents

General Secretaries

Treasurer

Secretary

Chief Ministers and Deputy Chief Ministers

Notable Public Figures In The Party

The BJP has a number of prominent public figures among its members, who have either either campaigned for, contested elections for or held office for the party. The induction of celebrities into the party helped the party receive extra attention from the media and the public, but it has also received criticism from others, who have claimed that the celebrities knew little about politics or would create an image of elitism for the party.

Current BJP Administrations in the States

BJP-Ruled States Without Outside Support

  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Chattisgarh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Chattisgarh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BChattisgarh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Chattisgarh?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Chattisgarh (page does not exist)">Chattisgarh</a>
  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Gujarat%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Gujarat%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BGujarat%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Gujarat" title="Gujarat">Gujarat</a>
  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Madhya%20Pradesh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Madhya%20Pradesh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BMadhya%20Pradesh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Madhya_Pradesh" title="Madhya Pradesh">Madhya Pradesh</a>
  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Rajasthan%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Rajasthan%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BRajasthan%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Rajasthan" title="Rajasthan">Rajasthan</a>

<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">Head of a Coalition Government


  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Uttarakhand%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Uttarakhand%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BUttarakhand%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Uttarakhand" title="Uttarakhand">Uttarakhand</a> (Allied with the <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Uttarakhand%20Kranti%20Dal%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Uttarakhand%20Kranti%20Dal%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BUttarakhand%20Kranti%20Dal%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Uttarakhand_Kranti_Dal?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (page does not exist)">Uttarakhand Kranti Dal</a> and two independents)

<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">Junior Partner in a Coalition With a <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22National%20Democratic%20Alliance%20Partner%20%28NDA%29%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22National%20Democratic%20Alliance%20%28India%29%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Afalse%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BNational%20Democratic%20Alliance%20%28India%29%7CNational%20Democratic%20Alliance%20Partner%20%28NDA%29%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/National_Democratic_Alliance_(India)" title="National Democratic Alliance (India)">National Democratic Alliance Partner (NDA)</a>


  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Bihar%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Bihar%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BBihar%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Bihar" title="Bihar">Bihar</a> (Allied with the <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Janata%20Dal%20%28United%29%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Janata%20Dal%20%28United%29%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BJanata%20Dal%20%28United%29%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Janata_Dal_(United)?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Janata Dal (United) (page does not exist)">Janata Dal (United)</a>)
  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Nagaland%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Nagaland%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BNagaland%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Nagaland" title="Nagaland">Nagaland</a> (Allied with the <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Nagaland%20People%27s%20Front%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Nagaland%20People%27s%20Front%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BNagaland%20People%27s%20Front%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Nagaland_People%27s_Front?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Nagaland People's Front (page does not exist)">Nagaland People's Front</a>)
  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Orissa%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Orissa%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BOrissa%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Orissa" title="Orissa">Orissa</a> (Allied with the <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Biju%20Janata%20Dal%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Biju%20Janata%20Dal%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BBiju%20Janata%20Dal%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Biju_Janata_Dal?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Biju Janata Dal (page does not exist)">Biju Janata Dal</a>)
  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Punjab%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Punjab%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BPunjab%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Punjab" title="Punjab">Punjab</a> (Allied with the <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Shiromani%20Akali%20Dal%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Shiromani%20Akali%20Dal%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BShiromani%20Akali%20Dal%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Shiromani_Akali_Dal?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Shiromani Akali Dal (page does not exist)">Shiromani Akali Dal</a>)

<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">Coalition With a <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Non-NDA%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22National%20Democratic%20Alliance%20%28India%29%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Afalse%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BNational%20Democratic%20Alliance%20%28India%29%7CNon-NDA%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/National_Democratic_Alliance_(India)" title="National Democratic Alliance (India)">Non-NDA</a> Party


  • <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Karnataka%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Karnataka%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BKarnataka%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Karnataka" title="Karnataka">Karnataka</a> (Allied with the <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Janata%20Dal%20%28Secular%29%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Janata%20Dal%20%28Secular%29%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BJanata%20Dal%20%28Secular%29%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Janata_Dal_(Secular)?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Janata Dal (Secular) (page does not exist)">Janata Dal (Secular)</a>)

<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">In January 2006, it also gained power in <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Karnataka%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Karnataka%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BKarnataka%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Karnataka" title="Karnataka">Karnataka</a> state, when the ruling Janata Dal (Secular) governing majority fractured, with one faction aligning with the BJP to form a coalition government. The agreement is a power-sharing deal where the BJP and JD(S) will each hold the Chief Minister's post for half of the term, and the BJP remains the larger party in the ministry.


<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">State Situations


<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">The BJP lost power in <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Jharkhand%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Jharkhand%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BJharkhand%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Jharkhand" title="Jharkhand">Jharkhand</a> on September 14, 2006 when 4 independent MLA's withdrew their support to the Arjun Munda Government.


<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">Historically, the BJP has either led or allied to form state governments in: <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Arunachal%20Pradesh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Arunachal%20Pradesh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BArunachal%20Pradesh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Arunachal_Pradesh" title="Arunachal Pradesh">Arunachal Pradesh</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Bihar%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Bihar%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BBihar%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Bihar" title="Bihar">Bihar</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Chattisgarh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Chattisgarh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BChattisgarh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Chattisgarh?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Chattisgarh (page does not exist)">Chattisgarh</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Goa%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Goa%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BGoa%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Goa" title="Goa">Goa</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Gujarat%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Gujarat%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BGujarat%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Gujarat" title="Gujarat">Gujarat</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Haryana%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Haryana%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BHaryana%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Haryana" title="Haryana">Haryana</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Himachal%20Pradesh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Himachal%20Pradesh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BHimachal%20Pradesh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Himachal_Pradesh" title="Himachal Pradesh">Himachal Pradesh</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Jharkhand%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Jharkhand%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BJharkhand%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Jharkhand" title="Jharkhand">Jharkhand</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Karnataka%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Karnataka%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BKarnataka%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Karnataka" title="Karnataka">Karnataka</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Madhya%20Pradesh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Madhya%20Pradesh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BMadhya%20Pradesh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Madhya_Pradesh" title="Madhya Pradesh">Madhya Pradesh</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Maharashtra%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Maharashtra%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BMaharashtra%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Maharashtra" title="Maharashtra">Maharashtra</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Manipur%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Manipur%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BManipur%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Manipur" title="Manipur">Manipur</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Nagaland%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Nagaland%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BNagaland%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Nagaland" title="Nagaland">Nagaland</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Orissa%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Orissa%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BOrissa%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Orissa" title="Orissa">Orissa</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Punjab%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Punjab%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BPunjab%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Punjab" title="Punjab">Punjab</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Rajasthan%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Rajasthan%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BRajasthan%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Rajasthan" title="Rajasthan">Rajasthan</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Uttar%20Pradesh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Uttar%20Pradesh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BUttar%20Pradesh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Uttar_Pradesh" title="Uttar Pradesh">Uttar Pradesh</a> and <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Uttarakhand%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Uttarakhand%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BUttarakhand%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Uttarakhand" title="Uttarakhand">Uttarakhand</a>. It has also held power in the Union Territory of <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Delhi%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Delhi%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BDelhi%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Delhi" title="Delhi">Delhi</a>, one of two Union Territories to have a Legislature.


<p data-rte-fromparser="true" data-rte-empty-lines-before="1">The BJP has never taken part in a state government in: <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Andhra%20Pradesh%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Andhra%20Pradesh%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BAndhra%20Pradesh%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh" title="Andhra Pradesh">Andhra Pradesh</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Assam%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Assam%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BAssam%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Assam" title="Assam">Assam</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Jammu%20%26%20Kashmir%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Jammu%20%26%20Kashmir%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BJammu%20%26%20Kashmir%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Jammu_%26_Kashmir?action=edit&redlink=1" class="new" title="Jammu & Kashmir (page does not exist)">Jammu & Kashmir</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Kerala%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Kerala%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BKerala%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Kerala" title="Kerala">Kerala</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Meghalaya%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Meghalaya%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BMeghalaya%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Meghalaya" title="Meghalaya">Meghalaya</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Mizoram%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Mizoram%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BMizoram%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Mizoram" title="Mizoram">Mizoram</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Sikkim%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Sikkim%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BSikkim%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Sikkim" title="Sikkim">Sikkim</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Tamil%20Nadu%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Tamil%20Nadu%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BTamil%20Nadu%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Tamil_Nadu" title="Tamil Nadu">Tamil Nadu</a>, <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22Tripura%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22Tripura%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BTripura%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/Tripura" title="Tripura">Tripura</a> and <a data-rte-meta="%7B%22type%22%3A%22internal%22%2C%22text%22%3A%22West%20Bengal%22%2C%22link%22%3A%22West%20Bengal%22%2C%22wasblank%22%3Atrue%2C%22noforce%22%3Atrue%2C%22wikitext%22%3A%22%5B%5BWest%20Bengal%5D%5D%22%7D" data-rte-instance="278-76616945150cd01cf177da" href="/wiki/West_Bengal" title="West Bengal">West Bengal</a>, although in a few of these states, it has extended outside support to a ruling government. In most of these states, it has at least won some local elections.



Voter Base

The BJP's roots were in the so-called "cow belt", a media term used to refer to the belt of Hindi-speaking, mostly rural states in North India. With the help of its affiliated organizations, it recruited members and support among conservative Hindus in this region. It was also identified with the Upper Castes and traders/merchants. The cause of Hindutva in the 1990s helped it to expand its appeal to other Castes. Its time in power in the Centre and recruitment of more leaders from other backgrounds helped it to establish a foothold in areas it was not traditionally accepted. Beyond the upper castes, it has also recruited a number of leaders, and subsequently, voters, from the Other Backward Castes (OBC's) and Scheduled Tribes/Scheduled Castes (SC/ST's). The party also saw a powerful surge its support among urban India's middle and upper classes. The BJP's desire to reach out to new constituencies and retain its traditional voter base has been a source of major internal conflict within the party.

See also

References

  1. Along the Golden Quadrilateral, it's Vajpayee all the way
  2. Smith, David James, Hinduism and Modernity P189, Blackwell Publishing ISBN 0-631-20862-3
  3. Profile, Jyotirmaya Sharma
  4. Hindu Nationalist Politics,J. Sharma Times of India

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