The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार),officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. The government of India is headed by the President who acts on the advise of the Prime Minister.
The government of India consists of three branches-
- Judicial branch
- Legislative branch
- Executive Branch
While all the branches of the government function independently of each other. The legislative branch of the parliament is subject to judicial review and the executive branch is subject to review from the parliament
The judicial branch of the government is involved in the interpretation of the Constitution. The head of the judicial branch is the Chief justice of India. He is also the head of the Supreme Court. Under the supreme court are the high courts headed by their respective chief justices.The high courts in turn preside over the lower courts
The legislative branch of the Government of India is divided into two houses namely Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. These houses meet separately in the India Parliament during their session but a joint session may be convened by the President.
The Lok Sabha is considered the house of the people. The Lok Sabha is elected directly by the people of India in a general election conducted by the Election Commission .The legislators have a term of five years .The Prime Minister and his Council of Minister can get dismissed if subject to a vote of no-confidence by the Lok sabha.
The Rajya Sabha is considered the house of the elders. It is elected by an electoral college consisting of members of the state legislative assembly. It is a permanent house and its 1/3rd of its members retire every two years. While it has almost equal powers with the Lok Sabha on matters of amendments of the constitution it has ceremonial powers with regards to money bills.
The executive branch is that branch of the government related to the enforcement of law in India .It is headed by the President who acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers.
The president is the ceremonial head of the government. All orders are issued in his name.
The prime minister is the actual head of the government .It is he who looks after the day to day functioning of the government.
The cabinet consists of the Prime Minister and a few ministers holding important portfolios. The cabinet is responsible for the day to day governance of the country.
Elections in India are conducted in accordance to the universal adult franchise.The elections are managed by the Election Commission.Elections are conducted using the secret ballot procedure.
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