The history of Pakistan began with independence on 14 August 1947 but the region has been inhabited continuously for at least two million years. The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements. The modern history of the country began with the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which resulted in 90 years of direct British rule, and laid the foundations for the freedom struggle of the Indian National Congress (commonly just called Congress) and the All India Muslim League (Commonly just called League). The latter was founded in 1906 to protect Muslim interests and rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of neglect and under-representation of Muslims in politics. On 29 December 1930, the poet Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, demanding the formation of an independent Pakistan.

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