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Republic of India
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: "सत्यमेव जयते".
"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]

Jana Gana Mana
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[2]
National song:
Vande Mataram

Vande Mataram
Template:Loop15"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[lower-alpha 1][1]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India is in dark green.
Claimed but uncontrolled regions are in light green.
CapitalNew Delhi
Largest city Mumbai
Official language(s) Template:Collapsible list
Recognised regional languages Template:Collapsible list
National language(s) none[3]
Demonym Indian
Government Template:Nowrap
 -  President Shri Pranab Mukherjee
 -  Vice President Mohammad Hamid Ansari
 -  Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi (BJP)
 -  Speaker of the House Sumitra Mahajan (BJP)
 -  Chief Justice T. S. Thakur
Legislature Parliament of India
 -  Upper house Rajya Sabha
 -  Lower house Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Declared 15 August 1947 
 -  Republic 26 January 1950 
 -  Total 3,287,263 km2 [lower-alpha 2](7th)
1,269,219 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 9.56
 -  2016 estimate 1,293,057,000[4] (2nd)
 -  2011 census 1,210,193,422[5] (2nd)
 -  Density Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "["./km2 (31st)
Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "["./sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $4.457 trillion[6] 
 -  Per capita $3,693[6] 
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.676 trillion[6] 
 -  Per capita $1,388[6] 
Gini (2004) 36.8[7] (79th)
HDI (2011) Template:Increase0.547[8] (medium) (134th)
Currency Indian rupee (Template:INR) (INR)
Time zone IST Template:Nowrap
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+05:30)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .inTemplate:Collapsible list
Calling code 91

India (Template:IPAc-en), officially the Republic of India (Template:Lang),[lower-alpha 3] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[lower-alpha 4] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.[9] Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—originated here. Judaism arrived in the 6th century B.C.E. Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also helped shape the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance and led by Mahatma Gandhi.

The Indian economy is the world's tenth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, illiteracy, corruption, and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks ninth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

See Also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Template:Harvard citation/core
  2. Template:Harvard citation/core
  3. Template:Harvard citation/core
  4. Template:Harvard citation/core
  5. Template:Harvard citation/core
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 India. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on April 18, 2012.
  7. Template:Harvard citation/core
  8. Template:Harvard citation/core
  9. Template:Harvard citation/core

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