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Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve/Flora & Fauna

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The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve represents Himalayan Highlands Biogeographic Zonation (2B) of ==India== and it's core one i.e the Nanda Devi National Park is among the World Heritage Sites due to its unique biological and cultural wealth. The vegetation of the reserve comprises of temperate, sub-alpine, and alpine types. The temperate and sub-alpine zones are mainly dominated by broad leaved deciduous forests, broad-leaved evergreen forests, and coniferous forests and also includes agriculture land and settlements. Some of the forest communities of this zone are Cupressus torulosa, Cedrus deodara, Acer caesium, Acer caesium- Prunus cornuta mixed, Acer villosum- Ulmus wallichiana mixed, Aesculus indica-Acer villosum-Quercus floribunda mixed, Juglans regia- Prunus cornuta mixed, Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Abies spectabilis, Picea smithiana- Pinus wallichiana mixed Prunus cornuta, Betula utilis, Picea smithiana, Taxus . baccata subsp. ,'wallichiana- Rhododendron arboreum mixed, Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana- Abies pindrow mixed Hippophae salicifolia, Rhododendron arboreum, Ainus nepalensis, Qercus floribunda ,Aesculas indica, llex dipyrena mixed, Q. semecarpifolia , Q. floribunda, Rhododendron arboreum mixed, Ulmus wallichiana, etc. The alpine zone comprises of scrub communities such as Rhododendron (3 spiecies), Juniperus indica, Piptaitthus nepalensis, Lomcera spp., Salix denticulata, Rosa spp., etc. various association of scrubs and 62 communities of herbaceous species. The common species of this zone are Tanacetum tomentosum, Iris kumaonensis, Nomocharis oxypetala, Leontopodium himalayanum, Geranium wallichianum, Potentilla atrosanguinea, Artemisia maritima, Saxifraga pulvinaria, S. hemisphaerica, Androsace globifera, Danthonia cachemyriana, Carex spp., Kobressia duthiei, Cortia depressa, Trachydium roylei, Fragaria spp.. Rheum spp., Ranunculus spp., Anemone spp. Primula spp., Allium spp., Polygonum spp., Aconitum spp., Saussurea spp., Senecio spp., etc. The zone harbours high value species of medicinal plants Aconitum heterophyllun, Angelica glanca, Allium humile, Podophyllum, hexandrum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Nardostachys grandiflora.Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Arnebia benthamii, etc. and rare endangered species. About fifteen types of macro and micro habitats viz., Forests, Exposed, Shady moist. Riverine, Water courses. Rocks/boulders/walls, Rock crevices/under bounders. Marsh/wet, Alpine pastures/slopes, Moraines, Shrubberries, Way sides/roadsides. Camping sites, Epiphytic parasitic, and Cultivated have been identified (Samant 1993,1999). Over 1000 species of plants including fungi, lichens, bryophytes and about 520 species of fauna including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, insects, molluscs and annelids have been recorded from the area. Most of the species of flora and fauna are native and endemic. The reserve harbors many native, endemic, endangered and threatened floral and faunal species, which needs greater attention towards their conservation and management. Among the rare-endangered species, Allium stracheyi (Vulnerable), Dioscorea deltoidea (Vulnerable), Nardostachys grandiflora (Vulnerable), Picrorhiza kurrooa (Vulnerable), Saussoorea costus (Endangered), S. aitkinsoni, Cyananthus integer, Cypripedium cordigerum, G. elegans, C. himalaicum, Athyrium duthiei (All rare), andAcer caesium (Vulnerable), have been recorded in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Using new IUCN criteria these species along with others have also been categorized as Critically Rare (Aconitum balfourii, A. heterophyllum, A. violaceum, Angelica glauca, Arnebia benthamii, Dactylorhiza hatagirea,

=Delphinium denudatum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Fritillaria roylei, Meconopsis aculeata, Nardostachys grandiflora, Podophyllum hexandrum, Sausswea costus, Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana and Vulvrlunu wullichii), Endangered (Berberis aristata, B. lycluin, Heracleuin caiidicans, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Polygonatum verticillatum, Saussoorea obvallata and Swertia angustifolid), Vulnerable (Bergenia ligulata, Curculigo orchioides, Hedychium spicatum, Paeonia emodi, Rheum australe. Rhododendron anthopogon, and Thalictrum foliolosum) and Low Risk Near Threatened (Jurinella macrocephala). The endangered mammals are Snow leopard (Panthera uncia), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus). Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster), Bharal/Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragusjemlahicus), and Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis). Among the birds Himalayan monal pheasant (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklas pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha). Western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus), Himalayan snow cock (Tetraogallus himalayensis), Himalayan golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Eastern steppe eagle (A. rapax), Black eagle (Icliiweliis malayensis), and Himalayan bearded vulture or Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) are endangered species. =

The reserve supports a large number of crops, fruit trees and vegetables. Among the cultivated resources the major crops and fruits of the area are Fagopyrum esculentum. (Ogal) F. tataricum (Phapar), Phaseolus vulgaris (Rajma), Eleusine coracana (Manduwa), Amaranthus paniculatus (Chaulai), Solanum luberosiim (Aalu), Hordeum himalayense (Uwa), H. vulgare (Jau), Glycine max (Bhat), Triticinn aestivum (Gaboon), Lens esculenta (Masoor), Brassica campeslris (Sarson) and Panicum miliaceum (Chena) are the main crops cultivated by the local people for food. The main vegetables are Brassica alba (Rai), Spinacea oleracea (Palag), Brassica oleracea (Gobhi), Lycopersicon esculentum (Tamatar), Trigonellafoenum-graecum (Methi), Solanum melongena (Baigan), S. tuberosum (Aalu), Phaseolus vulgaris (Rajma), Cucurbita maxima (Kaddu), Lagenaria siceraria (Lauki), Fagopyrum tataricum (Phapar) and Raphaims sativus (Mooli). The common fruit plants are Pyrus communis (Naspati), P. mains (Seb), Juglans regia (Akhruwa), Prunus persica (Khirol), P. armeniaca (Khumani, Chulu), P. ceracifera (Padum) and Vitis vinifera (Angoor). Apart from these, the reserve supports a large number of species, which are wild relatives of crop plants. Among the wild relatives of crop plants, species of Rosa', Fragaria, Ribes, Prunus, Allium, Juglans, Carum, Solanum, Cicer, Rubus, Rumex, Mains and Pyrus are well represented in the reserve. Among the animal genetic resources jhupu, sheep, goat, cows, ox, buffaloes, mule, horses, poultry and bees are important. Of the total vascular plants, 242 species are used in Pindari and 193 species are used in Lata-Tolma-Malari area. In Pindari area 146 species are medicinal and 94 species are wild edibles, where as in Lata-Tolma-Malari area 153 species are medicinal and 85 species are edibles. Among the wild edible plants Corylus jacquemontii, Morchella esculenta, Hippophae salicifolia, Plewospermum angelicoides andAllium humile, are notable and among the important medicinal plants Angelica glauca, Carum carvi, 'Saussurea costus, Megacarpaea polyandra, Aconitum balfourii, A. heterphyllum, Podophylliim hexandrum, Dactylorhiza halagirea, Geranium wallichianum, Allium stracheyi, Picrorhizia kurrooa, Nardoslachys grandiflora, etc. are notable. Few of these species are cultivated by the inhabitants.

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