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Panini Devanāgarī: (पाणिनि); a patronymic meaning "descendant of Pani" was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara.

He is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (meaning "eight chapters"), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion.

The Ashtadhyayi is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit (though scholars agree it likely was built on earlier works), and the earliest known work on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics.

Panini's comprehensive and scientific theory of grammar is conventionally taken to mark the end of the period of Vedic Sanskrit, by definition introducing Classical Sanskrit.

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