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States and territories of India

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India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven Union Territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions. For most practical purposes, Union Territories are like states; the main difference is direct rule by the national government.

India - administrative map

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.

History

Pre-independence

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[12] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:

India Administrative Divisions 1951

Administrative division of India in 1951

  • Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, Orissa, Punjab (formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh (formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal.
  • The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The Part B states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin.
  • The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Cutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh.
  • The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.

States reorganization (1951–1956)

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[13] Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[15] As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.

Post-1956

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963. The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.

Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.

In November 2000, three new states were created namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.

Current proposals

Main article: List of proposed states and territories of India.

List

States

State Capital Largest City Statehood Population[1] Area
(km2)
Official Language
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad(de jure)
Amaravati (de facto)
Visakhapatnam 1 October 1953 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese
Bihar Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 99,200 Hindi
Chhattisgarh Naya Raipur Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi
Goa Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani
Gujarat Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi
Himachal Pradesh Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar(Summer) Jammu (Winter) Srinagar 26 January 1950 12,541,302 222,236 Urdu
Jharkhand Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi
Karnataka Bengaluru 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Manipuri
Meghalaya Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English
Mizoram Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 Mizo, English, Hindi
Nagaland Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan Jaipur 1 November 1966 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi
Sikkim Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English
Tamil Nadu Chennai 26 January 1950 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil
Telangana Hyderabad 2 June 2014 35,193,978 114,840 Telugu, Urdu
Tripura Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Kanpur 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi
Uttarakhand Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi
West Bengal Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali

Union territories

State Capital Largest City Population Area
(km2)
Official Language
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair 49,506,799 160,205 English, Hindi
Chandigarh Chandigarh __ 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Silvassa 343,709 491 Gujarati, Hindi
Daman and Diu Daman 243,247 112 English,Gujarati, Hindi, Konkani
Delhi New Delhi __ 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi
Lakshadweep Kavaratti 64,473 32 English
Puducherry Pondicherry 1,247,953 492 English, Tamil

See Also

References

  1. List of state with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011
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